Friday, January 18, 2013
Environmental Considerations in Federal Procurement: An Overview of the Legal Authorities and Their Implementation
Kate M. Manuel
L. Elaine Halchin
Specialist in American National Government
Coupled with increasing concerns about the environment, the magnitude of federal spending on contracts has prompted questions from Members of Congress and the public about the role of environmental considerations in federal procurement. These include: to what extent do agencies consider environmental factors when procuring goods or services? What legal authorities presently require or allow agencies to take environmental factors into account when acquiring goods or services? How are existing provisions authorizing agencies to consider environmental factors implemented? This report provides an overview, answering these and related questions.
The federal procurement system is designed “to deliver on a timely basis the best value product or service to the customer, while maintaining the public’s trust and fulfilling public policy objectives.” Environmental objectives can generally be among the public policy objectives that factor into federal procurement. However, they are not necessarily the most significant objectives overall or in any specific procurement. There are numerous other objectives (e.g., obtaining high quality goods and services at low prices, promoting American manufacturing, protecting small businesses, fostering affirmative action) that can also factor into procurement decisions. The relationship and prioritization among these different objectives is not always clear.
Various legal authorities currently require or allow contracting officers to take environmental considerations into account when procuring goods and services. These authorities can be broadly divided into three categories: (1) “attribute-focused” authorities, generally requiring agencies to avoid or acquire products based on their environmental attributes (e.g., ozone-depleting substances, recovered content); (2) general contracting authorities, allowing agencies to purchase goods with certain environmental attributes when they have bona fide requirements for such goods; and (3) responsibility-related authorities, which require agencies to avoid certain dealings with contractors that have been debarred for violations of the Clean Air or Clean Water Acts. “Attribute-focused” authorities arguably do not deprive vendors of ineligible products of due process or equal protection in violation of the U.S. Constitution. However, certain preferences for products with desired environmental attributes, or vendors of such products, could potentially violate procurement integrity regulations and the Competition in Contracting Act if not based in statute. Use of evaluation factors based on environmental considerations is possible in negotiated procurements, but subject to certain conditions, and the reportedly lower lifecycle costs of “green” products do not, per se, mean that their acquisition is justified on a “best value” basis.
Agencies generally implement these authorities by relying on third-party designations of products with specific environmental attributes and using standard purchasing methods, including bilateral contracts, the Federal Supply Schedules, and government-wide commercial purchase cards.
Beginning with President Obama’s 2009 Executive Order on “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance,” the Obama Administration has taken steps to promote consideration of environmental factors in federal procurement. Recently, for example, the General Services Administration (GSA) reported on plans to incorporate consideration of greenhouse gas emissions inventories into federal procurement decisions, and the Federal Acquisition Regulation was amended to require that contractors report on their purchases of biobased products under service and construction contracts. Certain such initiatives have prompted controversy, however. Some Members of Congress sought to restrict the Department of Defense’s purchase of biofuels as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2013, and some commentators have objected to GSA’s use of the LEED rating system for buildings.
Date of Report: January 7, 2013
Number of Pages: 27
Order Number: R41297
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Posted by Penny Hill Press, Inc. at Friday, January 18, 2013